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When creating an authentic period hairstyle or makeup for film or television, there are several things to consider to ensure that you get the designs right. These things will also help you when doing dailies or a last-minute job. If creating a period-inspired look for a fashion shoot or for a bit of vintage fun, then you have much more flexibility and can add modern twists to any retro style as you like.
- Research the period thoroughly. And don’t just look at stuff on the internet – information on the web can be really misleading or incorrect. Use various sources to get a more rounded and accurate view. Some ideas for research include books, art galleries and museums (sculptures, paintings), original film footage and photographs, talking to people who lived during that era, and so on.
- Understand the era you are working on. Look at life as it was and understand things like where people worked, social structures, family life, who and what influenced trends and so on. Knowing what life was like during the period and what was available gives you a greater understanding of why people looked the way they did. This, in turn, will help you create period hair and makeup that is more realistic.
Use Reference Pictures
- Makeup and hair is a visual art, and using pictures is vital to keep you on the right track. It also prevents you from getting carried away and adding embellishments that are not authentic.
- Build up a reference library for each different period and for people from different backgrounds and classes. An upper-class Edwardian lady with her lady’s maid on hand will look very different to a working-class woman who sells flowers or makes matches. There are always variations in a period, and not everyone adhered to what was fashionable either. For example, older people may keep the styles known to them in their younger years. Also, high fashion was not necessarily worn by the masses, so look at ordinary people for everyday styles.
Get the Basics Right
- It starts with having the right hair for the period – consider the cut, the length and the colour of the artist’s hair. Modern cuts can be dressed into a period style, but may need a bit of help (e.g. hair pieces) to look more authentic or to be workable for the style required.
- Length and bulk, if needed, can be added to someone’s hair with hair pieces (backfalls, switches, wefts or clusters) or hair extensions. You can’t get an Edwardian do out of a bob! Really handy to know how to work with, especially in the era of high definition. If someone has completely the wrong hair for the period, then a wig may be the way to go.
- Be careful with obviously dyed hair and highlights, especially when working in a period when hair colours were limited or not noticeably used. They may need to be covered over (e.g. with a hat or scarf) or disguised (e.g. using coloured mousse or an SFX palette to neutralise to a natural hair colour).
- There are a few things to look at when working on a period production. Consider the basic elements on someone’s face and body. Did people shave? Did people pluck? Think about eyebrows for example – some periods had skinny brows (e.g. 1920s and 1970s), others were big and bushy (1980s) and others had no visible plucking going on (lots!). Did people have common illnesses and diseases during that era that were visible on faces and skin? What about teeth and nails? This all comes back to knowing the era and how different people lived, as well as knowing what was in fashion.
Use the Right Tools
- To create authentic period hairstyles, you need to use the right equipment and techniques to create the right set. The right set can then be dressed out to create the style. You can use both traditional methods as well as modern techniques and heated tools to create period styles. Tradition methods include pin curls, barrel rolls and Marcel irons. Ultimately, it’s about understanding the finished style and knowing how this can be achieved with the right setting methods and tools.
- To create an authentic period makeup, use the right colours, finish and textures. For example, don’t use makeup with a sheen to create a makeup look from a period when the products used were matte. Likewise, don’t use thick black mascara for a period when mascara was not invented yet! Also, create the right shapes and heaviness of application that are appropriate to the period. For instance, rouge used in some periods was applied quite heartily to the cheeks, creating a flushed look.
Read the Script
- Understand each character including for example their job, class or position in society, what they are doing (are they at home, working, or an event). All these things dictate what someone would have looked like. Consequently this helps when creating period hair and makeup looks for each character. Of course, there can be artistic interpretations for any periods and this can depend on how authentic the director wishes the film to look.
Liaise with Other Departments
- Check with costume if the character is wearing a hat, and what clothing they are wearing. No point coming up with a cracking hairstyle if it’s then flattened or hidden under a hat. Or likewise, has to be redressed to accommodate head wear or costume.
And finally, remember that a character is potentially filmed and, therefore, seen from all sides. Check the hairstyle and makeup from all angles, not just the front.